Glossary


African
Term referring to Bantu-speaking indigenous peoples of South Africa.
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Africans

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Afrikaners
Term usually reserved for "white" speakers of Afrikaans ( a language derived mainly from Dutch). Many are, or claim to be, descendants of the early Cape settlers.
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ANC
African National Congress, founded in 1912. The oldest and most influential of the liberation movements. It came to power in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.
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Anti-squatter policies
These were used to demolish squatter settlements.
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Apartheid
Sometimes euphemistically called 'separate development', apartheid is a system of policies directed towards the separation of different ethnic or racial groups. Although there are definite similarities between segregation and apartheid, some observers note that apartheid represents the more explicit regulation of intergroup relations (where such regulation is based on the ideology of racial or ethnic superiority). Apartheid operated at three distinct level of 'grand apartheid' urban apartheid and 'petty apartheid'. 'Grand apartheid's' vision was to create separate nation-states for each of the black ethnic groups. Urban apartheid involved the spatial separation of the four racial groups according to the Population Registration Act of 1950 into group areas according to the Group Areas Act of 1950. ' Petty apartheid' involved detailed social segregation i.e. education and health, and separate sections of post offices and other official buildings.
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Apartheid City
The pre-1948 Segregation City was transformed into an Apartheid City where each of the four racial groups had to reside within a designated area according to the Group Areas Act of 1950. Buffer strips separated the residential areas. Each area had its own schools, health facilities and community facilities to ensure maximum racial segregation. 'Disqualified persons' residing in the 'wrong' area had to be resettled. It was mainly Coloureds in the Western Cape and Indians in the Durban metropole who had to be resettled to the outskirts of the cities.
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Apartheid City in Transition
Since 1986 the apartheid city is in transition due to changing political and economic forces resulting in spatial transformation. This phrase can be used to explain spatial transformation in the urban areas since 1986 till 1994.
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Apartheid planning
Apartheid planning is a distinctive spatial planning strategy which resulted in the state-directed spatial reorganisation of a society. A variety of spatial components formed part of apartheid planning i.e. homeland political and economic development, apartheid cities, forced removals, redrawing of homeland boundaries, migrant labour, frontier commuting and industrial development points either on the borders of homelands or within homelands.
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Apartheid Constitutions

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Artefacts

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Assimilation
As a specific racial or ethnic policy, assimilation refers to a strategy whereby the boundaries differentiating between groups are reduced with homogenisation as the ideal. (See pluralism, equalitarian pluralism and inequalitarian pluralism).
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Backyard squatters
Squatters settling in backyards of township with the permission of the land lord. This was an entrance to the townships in the 1980s when there was still strict control on the influx of blacks to cities.
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Bantustans
As used in the 1950s, this term refers to areas reserved for African occupation, many of which existed since the nineteenth century and encompassed the heartlands of some African chiefdoms. The term was also initially used by Verwoerd (NP) to refer to the fragmented 13% of the total area of South Africa, divided into ten units (homelands), and to be given some form of self-rule. The term was also taken up by the opponents to this homeland policy critical of the artificiality of matching 'tribal divisions' to geographical regions.
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Bid-rent curve

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Bill of human rights

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Blackening

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Buffer strips
Were used to separate racial groups in the urban areas. It was either physical (rivers, and ridges) or man-made barriers (railways, industrial areas, roads, cemeteries and open spaces).
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Business act
The Act provides a flexible framework for local governments to formulate related by-laws for informal economic activities.
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Capital status
Factors taken into consideration when a town applies for city status: Population; Grading; Property values; Influence of town as a national and regional centre regarding trade, industry, finance, administration, agriculture, mining; To what extent is the town a centre for - government services; Rail, air and road connections and tourism; The nature, quality and diversity of cultural, educational and recreational services; Growth rate; The standard and extent of retail, banking and other professional facilities; Employment opportunities for residents; Historical and geographical importance; Existing defence force unit present in town or surrounding area; Ambulance and fire services; Religious importance.
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Central business district (CBD) / Inner city
This is the area where there are a concentration of business activity in any urban area. It is also referred as inner cities.
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Circular migration

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'Civic'

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Closed city policies
These policies refer to policies which prohibited people from migrating to urban areas. In South Africa influx control was instrumental in keeping people in their rural settings.
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Closer settlements
These settlements came into being as a direct result of apartheid planning. The clearance of 'black spots' in the former 'white' South Africa resulted in the emergence of closer settlements as these settlements were the dumping sites for 'surplus' blacks in the rural areas of the former homelands. The main sources of income in these settlements are pensions and income through migrant labour practice.
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Closer settlements and ethnic cities
These settlements were usually created in homeland areas within commuting distance from major urban areas in white South Africa. The principle was that the labour of inhabitants of these areas were utilised in white South Africa.
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Colonial City
Refers to the city structure emerged during the colonial era till 1910. Large similarities can be noted between the spatial structure and racial segregation of the colonial and apartheid cities.
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Coloured
Refers to the unspecified "ethnic" category consisting of mixed-race descendants of white settlers, slaves and indigenous peoples of South Africa.
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Commuters
Refer to people commuting from their residential to work area which can be in the same city or from dormitory settlements in former homelands. Commuters originate from former homelands were called frontier commuters and were highly subsidised by the apartheid government Buses, trains and mini taxis are mainly been used as mode of transport.
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Constitution
The Constitution of a state is a set of laws or regulations regarding aspects such as the composition of government institutions, the distribution and division of power, and the general principles according to which power is exercised. The main purposes of a Constitution are to eliminate arbitrary government action and to guarantee the rights of citizens.
Apartheid Constitutions
* 1961 Constitution: adopted when South Africa became a sovereign Republic
* 1983 Constitution
Interim Constitution: 1993 saw the passing of a new Constitution, here referred to as the interim Constitution
1996 Constitution: this new Constitution of the Republic of South Africa was passed by the Constitutional Court in 1996 and taking effect / promulgated in 1997; it was firmly based on the interim Constitution
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Conventional

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Conventional political participation
Conventional political participation refers to those political actions for which institutionalised channels exist and which are normally supported by the government. Examples of conventional political participation include: electoral campaigns, referendums and elections.
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Courtyards

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Democracy
In its most general sense a democracy refers to governance where all adults in the particular society have a part in the decision-making processes (e.g. by means of elections, referendums and political party representation).
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Desegregation
This is one of the most dominant processes since 1986 as racially segregated areas and activities are opening up. The various dimensions are residential, education, health, business, sport and amenities. For nation-building social integration is fundamental for some form of success.
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Development Facilitation Act of 1995
The major aim of this legislation is to override existing apartheid-related planning legislation. Some of the principles are the restructuring of the spatial environment, compacting cities, promote sustainable settlements, encourage public participation and capacity building.
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Dispersed settlement pattern
Within a radius of 50 km from Pietersburg four proclaimed towns developed since the 1960s. This socially-engineered dispersed settlement pattern had many purposes and intentions. First, it separated black from white population groups. Second, it separated black tribal groups of the Sotho ethnic group from one another. Third, it separated different skills from one another in that a university town (Mankweng) developed solely for the educationally advanced and a homeland capital (Lebowakgomo) for the bureaucratic elite and as an industrial growth point. An industrial growth point and township (Seshego ) that bordered the city, served it with a working-class labour force. Last, the dormitory town of Sebayeng that would provide Mankweng and Pietersburg with a labour force.
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Dominant group
A dominant group (also referred to as a majority group) is that group which has pre-eminent authority to function both as guardians and as sustainers of the controlling value system. Other groups are then minority groups or intermediate minority groups (if more than two levels of stratification exist). Here the terms majority and minority refer to differential status, not to numerical size. It is therefore possible for a minority group to be in a numerical majority, and for a dominant group to represent a numerical minority.
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Dormitory settlement
Refer to settlements in former homelands from where the majority of the economic active population commutes to nearby urban areas. Townships are also referred to as dormitory suburbs.
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Dweller control
Turner argued that when people control the construction process (making decisions on what the house should look like, etc.) they are more satisfied than when houses are constructed for them.
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Equalitarian pluralism
As a specific racial or ethnic policy, equalitarian pluralism refers to the strategy whereby the boundaries differentiating groups are maintained, whilst all groups have equal access to power and other resources. (See assimilation, pluralism and inequalitarian pluralism.)
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Ethnic City
As part of the 'grand apartheid' vision formal settlements had to be developed for each black ethnic group. Since 1960 ethnic cities sprang up from only three to more than 90 in 1980. The majority of these settlements are within daily commuting distance from core areas and still function today as dormitory settlements.
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Ethnic island/enclave
Residential concentration of an ethnic group e.g. Jewish ghettos.
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Ethnicity
The concept of ethnicity refers to the social definition attributed to the cultural differences between groups. The phrase 'social definition' indicates that it is not so much the cultural differences per se, but the meanings attached by society to such differences that are of importance in distinguishing between groups.
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Executive authority
The executive refers to that branch of the government involved in the application of government decisions. Structurally it consists of institutions such as the civil service and the cabinet with a Prime Minister. There are basically two types of executives: cabinet systems (e.g. in South Africa) and presidential systems (e.g. the USA). (See Separation of powers.)
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Federal

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Federation
A federation is a form of government where there is a significant degree of devolution of central state power to the constituent units of the nation-state. Federal units are granted jurisdiction in specific areas. Thus, power is divided between the central government and the constituent states or provinces that form part of the federal unit.
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First, Second and Third World
The notion 'Third World' corresponds to the less developed countries (LDCs) or 'periphery', while the 'First World' refers to the highly industrialised world or 'core'. The notion 'Second World' must be seen in relation to a (former) communist regime, characterised by a strongly and centrally (urban) space; this is not to be confused with the 'semi-periphery' of the Newly Industrialised Countries (NISs)
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Functional development areas
Development of areas with a specific themes, for example, mixed land use, corridor development, high density suburb, etc.
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Fundamental human rights

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Group Areas Act
To implement the grand design of physical separation of the races, this law was passed in 1950. It specified separate residential areas for the different racial groups. As a means of removing black communities living in 'white' areas to their own separate areas, it proved particularly effective. However, during the course of 1991, when the government began to dismantle the apartheid system, this law was repealed.
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Highdensity corridors
Stimulate economic development along major public transport routes. These routes are normally linking the former white and black segments of the fragmented apartheid city.
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Homeland fringe
Informal settlement on the fringe of former homelands which came into being as informal dormitory settlements to nearby job opportunities.
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Homeland development
Homelands were geographically demarcated areas mostly reserved for the settlement of black people. Homeland development refers to the large-scale investment in these areas to make them financially viable.
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Homelands policy
See Bantustans.
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Hostels
Single sex hostels mainly for male migrant workers from former homelands and neighbouring countries. The first hostels were built in Kimberley after the discovery of diamonds (compounds) and later expanded to the other sectors of the mining industry elsewhere.
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Housing Accord
Signed in 1994.
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Housing as a verb
In contrast to housing as a noun. The function of a house (e.g. access to employment) is more important than the type of physical structure.
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Housing as process
Turner argued that shacks constructed by people themselves will improve over time by means of the investment by the inhabitants of such housing.
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Human settlements
Concept used by Habitat Agenda for all settlements.
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Indian / Asian
Term used to refer to the descendants whose forebears came from the Indian subcontinent. Many were originally recruited in the 1860s as indentured labourers to work on sugar plantations in Natal.
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Influx control
Bureaucratic and legal measures directed towards the regulation and control of African urbanisation and access to the labour market. A policy used in South Africa whereby black people could not urbanise freely. The policy was abandoned in 1985.
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Informal economy (sector)
That part of the (urban) economy consisting of small and frequently unregistered and unlicensed firms, petty retail trade and services characterised by labour-intensive methods (Reitsma and Kleinpenning, 1989).
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Informal
Informal housing is a type of non conventional low-cost housing. 'Mostly it is constructed with non-conventional building material that is obtained in an informal way' (Urban Foundation 1991)
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Inequalitarian pluralism
As a specific racial or ethnic policy, inequalitarian pluralism refers to the strategy where the boundaries differentiating between groups are not only maintained, but also result in an unequal distribution of power and other resources for the different groupings. (See assimilation, pluralism and equalitarian pluralism.)
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Inequality
South Africa has one of the highest levels of inequality in the world where some 20% of the population earns more than 60% of the total income while 20% of the poorest only receive 3%. Apart from inequality regarding income major spatial inequalities exist between former white and black suburbs e.g. infrastructure (water, sanitation, electricity, roads, storm water drainage), and education, health, welfare and recreational facilities. The post-1994 government is committed to reduce these inequalities which have emerged as result of apartheid policies.
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In situ upgrading
The provision of services and the legalisation of land to inhabitants of area where these do not exist.
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Integrated development planning (IDP)
The aim of integrated development planning is to integrate development and management of municipal areas. The process through which a municipality can proceed to produce an IDP includes the following: assessing the current social, economic and environmental reality; determining the community's needs by means of consultation; developing a shared vision; auditing available resources, skills and capacities; prioritising the needs according to short and long term importance; development of integrated frameworks and goals to meet the needs; formulation of strategies to achieve the goals within specific time frames; the implementation of projects and programmes to achieve key goals; and monitoring to measure the impact and performance.
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Invasion and succession

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Judiciary
Together with the legislature and the executive, the judiciary forms one of the three major aspects of government power. The function of the judiciary is to interpret the laws (introduced by the legislature) in cases where disputes arise regarding their meaning, or when these laws are infringed. Such interpretation takes place within the framework of a specific legal system. The judiciary operates by means of a hierarchy of courts (e.g. magistrate's courts, supreme courts, etc.). (See Separation of power.)
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Land Acts
The Land Acts of 1913 and 1936 stipulated the areas where blacks could have access to land rights which was limited to 13% of the total land surface (the former homelands).
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Land development objectives (LDO)
Part of IDP process is to establish land development objectives.
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Land invasions

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Land Reform Programme

This consists of three principle components:
Land restitution: An example of land restitution would be to address the problems of those who were dispossessed by racial discrimination in the past.
Land redistribution: This entails the provision of land to the poor for residential and productive purposes.
Tenure reform: This component aims to ensure tenure security to all South Africans.
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Legislative authority
The legislature refers to those government institutions that introduce, amend or repeal laws. Parliament (consisting of one or two Houses) usually fulfils this function. (See Separation of powers.)
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Legislature

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Local authorities/government/municipalities
At present there are more than 800 local authorities of which 535 are urban municipalities and the remainder rural local authorities (307). The number of local authorities is in the process of being reduced and should be completed early in 2000.
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Local Government Transition Act
Post-apartheid administrative function and governance at local government level had to be restructured according to this Act.
The Act provided for three phases of local government transformation: pre-interim period (negotiating and demarcating local government boundaries); interim period (election of transitional councils); final democratic phase (implementation of Constitution and White Paper on Local Government).
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Masakhane Campaign
This campaign is part of the broad national strategy to create the conditions necessary for the success of the RDP. It is aimed at mobilising all sectors of society to become actively involved in redressing the imbalances of the past and creating a society characterised by new values and norms, a new consciousness and sense of responsibility among all citizens to transform governance and build a united nation.
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Mfecane / Difaqane
Term referring to the massive upheavals and dispersion of African peoples throughout Southern Africa in the 1820s and 1830s, mainly in response to the rise and consolidation of the Zulu Kingdom in Natal.
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Migrant labour
This practice started originally with an agricultural focus where labourers were recruited in Ciskei and Transkei to provide certain functions in the agricultural sector in the Eastern and Western Cape. However, since the discovery of diamonds (1871) and gold (1886) the focus became mining related and has expanded to a variety of other economic sectors in the core areas. Migrant labourers originate from the former homelands as well as neighbouring countries in Southern Africa.
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Minority group
See Dominant group.
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Muthi
Traditional drugs used by the black population to cure or against evil spirits (Zulu word)
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Negotiation forum
A transitional arrangement where the local government negotiation forum had to be divided into statutory and non-statutory delegations. I.e. a 50/50 representation rule.
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Participatory Learning and Action (PLA)
It is a technique through which people at grassroots can be involved in planning and development. A variety of workshops are facilitated during which individuals can share their respective life stories as well as what development priorities should be embarked upon.
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Passages

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Peri-urban
Settlement adjacent to formal urban which are informally in nature and may or may not be part of the formal urban outer boundaries. These settlements are concentrated in formal homeland areas and may include closer settlements, homeland fringe and settlements surrounding ethnic cities.
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'Plaasgronden'
The large land properties of farmers involved mainly in extensive cattle breeding.
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Pluralism
As referring to a specific racial or ethnic policy, pluralism is a strategy whereby the boundaries differentiating between groups are maintained. That is, diversity is encouraged. (See assimilation, equalitarian pluralism and inequalitarian pluralism.)
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Population groups
When reference is made to population groups in the South African context, different race groups are usually implied.
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Population Registration Act
This act was promulgated in 1950 which was a corner stone for apartheid policies. This act provided for the compulsory classification of the population into discrete racially defined groups. Three groups were identified: white, black and Coloured. The latter group was split into several subdivisions: Cape Malay, Griqua, Indian, Chinese and a residual Cape Coloured group. The criteria adopted for classification purposes were based on physical appearance and social acceptability.
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Post-apartheid
This relates to the period after the first democratic elections on 27 April 1994.
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Post-apartheid City
Although the post-apartheid city is a vision the process of dismantling the apartheid city has started in 1986. Since 1994 spatial transformation processes have been speeded up which results in changing spatial patterns.
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(Post-)colonial city
As opposed to the 'indigenous' city. The latter is described according to the pre-industrial city model of Sj÷berg (1960). The contemporary Third World city is often a (post-)colonial city that came into being out of an 'indigenous' city.
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Proportional representation
Although there are many forms of proportional representation, its essential characteristic is that it is an electoral system whereby each party obtaining a required minimum of votes is granted a say in the political decision-making process (usually in the form of seats in the legislature). That is, seats are allocated in proportion to votes cast in multi-member constituencies. Representation is determined by the electoral support obtained by a political party. This avoids the pitfalls of absolute majoritarian systems (i.e. absolute power to the party with the majority of votes). The disadvantage of proportional representation is that it can result in a fragmented configuration of different parties all involved in the political decision-making process.
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Race
The term race can be defined as the social definition attributed to physical differences between groups. The phrase 'social definition' indicates that it is not so much the physical differences between people per se, but the meanings attached to such differences that are important.
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Racial / ethnic stratification system
This refers to a system whereby different racial or ethnic groups occupy different positions in terms of power and status in a society. (See Dominant group.)
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Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP)
The RDP is the mother policy since the post-1994 era which is both a policy vision for the future and an institutional structure for change management. It laid the foundation for future policies to be developed. Six basic principles lie at the heart of the RDP: integrated and sustainable programme, people-driven process that aims to provide peace and security for all, build the nation, link reconstruction and development, and deepen democracy. Five key programmes were identified, namely: meeting basic needs, developing human resources, building the economy, democratising the state and society, and implementation.
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Removal/resettlement
Forced removals have occurred on two scales: within urban context across group areas and secondly from 'white' South Africa (urban and rural areas) to the former homelands. Forced removals across homeland boundaries from 1960 to the early 1980s have resulted in more than 3m cases.
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Resegregation
After a period of desegregation a process of resegregation (social apartheid or separation) emerges not necessary based on colour but can include other indicators i.e. socio-economic profile.
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Rural areas
All areas outside the outer boundaries of proclaimed urban areas. This include commercial farming areas in the former 'white' South Africa and communal land in the former homelands including closer settlements, rural and agri-villages.
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Rural-urban fringes

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Rurbanisation

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Second World countries
Those countries which have been or are still under a communistic regime. Because of this social-historic context their cities show typical features of a strongly central planned space.
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Segregation
Segregation refers to a set of government policies and social practices towards the regulation of the relationship between white and black, colonisers and colonised. Segregation is in direct contrast to assimilation and integration of different groupings.
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Segregation City
Reflects the spatial development of the South African city from the colonial city (1910) till the apartheid city (starting in 1950).
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Self-help housing
Self-help housing refers to housing where the owner controls the building process mainly through constructing it himself or herself.
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Separate Amenities Act
In 1953 this law was passed in order to regulate the use of public amenities. Overseas critics of apartheid were appalled by "Blankes Alleen (Whites Only)" notices on park benches, and by the use of separate entrances for whites and blacks to public buildings such, for example, post offices. In 1990 the government which was dismantling the apartheid system, repealed this law.
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Separate development
An ideological euphemism for apartheid.
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Separation of powers
This refers to the division of state authority into three separate branches (the legislature, the executive and the judiciary). The ideal is that these three branches act independently from one another (each with its own set of competencies) in order to protect citizens against arbitrary action on the part of the government.
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Settlement hierarchy
A settlement hierarchy for South Africa has been proposed and for this study's purpose the following is suggested: metropolitan areas (> 500 000 persons), cities/large towns (50 000 – 500 000 persons), small towns (()

Shacks
An informal housing structure usually constructed by using unconventional building materials (e.g. corrugated iron, etc.).
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Shantytowns
Unplanned residential zone usually located on the fringe of the city, lacking most amenities.
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Site and service
Site and service projects refer to projects where people only receive/buy a site and basic services. The construction of the housing unit is the responsibility of the owner/s.
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Slums
This refers to existing urban areas where the conditions have deteriorated.
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Small-, medium- and micro-enterprise (SMME)
One of the emphases of the new government's economic and development policy is to promote small businesses. The strategy is referred to as SMMEs.
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Small taxi buses
The small taxi buses are an important means of transport for the inhabitants of the townships. It is not a public transport means, but it is organised by private individuals or little companies. Since the incomes of the drivers are dependent on the number of persons transported, these small buses are often overloaded.
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Space economy
Refers to how a country's economy can be illustrates or interpreted in spatial terms. The South African space economy can be divided into a core, inner and outer periphery.
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Spatial development initiatives (SDI)
In 1995 the Departments of Transport and of Trade and Industry initiated SDIs in an attempt to help unlock economic potential and facilitate investment, job creation and enterprise development in specific regions of the country. During 1996-1998 period eleven SDI's were established, focussing on the processing of mineral and agricultural products, tourism and forestry. Each SDI involves the construction or upgrading of key infrastructure, as well as one or two major 'anchor' projects.
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Spatial infilling/integration/compaction/densification
It is a spatial planning tool by which the fragmented apartheid city can be restructured to become more spatially integrated by developing open spaces between former white and black suburbs as well as to increase the density of the built-up environment of the total city.
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Spatial transformation
As apartheid was a spatial planning strategy the informal (since 1986) and formal (since 1994) dismantling of apartheid has resulted in major spatial changes. Reference is made to the geography of change or transition or transformation as South Africa is currently undergoing major transformation processes from its former apartheid mould to an envisaged integrated structure.
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Spaza shop
Shops in townships where a variety of goods are sold.
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Squatter settlements
Spontaneous, unplanned residential neighbourhoods without legal title to land, situated at the edge of cities or within cities on a site unsuited for conventional housing (Reitsma and Kleinpenning, 1989).
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Strategic development areas
Areas where the local authority must actively seek to support and facilitate development through the provision of bulk infrastructure, incentive schemes, and administrative support to developers to streamline application procedure.
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Street trader
Informal hawker activities concentrated at transport nodes and inner cities.
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Suburbanisation

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Survival strategy
Every deliberate economic act by poor households with the ultimate motivation to satisfy the most elementary human needs, at least on a minimal level, according to universal social and cultural norms, and without a fully social integrating character (Meert, H., Mistiaen, P. & Kesteloot, C., 1997).
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Tenure reform
See Land Reform
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Tribal authority
In former homeland areas tribal authorities are still functioning and are protected by the constitution to fulfil certain traditional and cultural functions.
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Top structure
In contrast to infrastructure, the term refers to the housing structure.
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Townships

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Unconventional

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Unconventional political participation
Unconventional political participation refers to political actions for which no institutionalised channels exist, and which are often frowned upon and not actively supported by the government (even though these actions are not necessarily prohibited). Examples of unconventional political participation include: boycotts, protest and demonstrations.
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Urban agriculture
Where agricultural activities are practised in an urban context. This is one of the survival strategies for new migrants coming from rural areas and who are unable to cope with the challenges of the urban environment.
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Urban areas
All those areas as classified urban ranging from small human settlements to metropolitan areas.
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Urban Development Framework (UDF)
The Urban Development Framework was published in 1997. This framework contains central government's vision for sustainable urban settlements as well as guidelines, goals and programmes for achieving this vision. It expresses South Africa's commitment to the goals of the Habitat Agenda. The aim of the UDF is to promote a consistent urban development policy approach for effective urban reconstruction and development, to guide development policies, strategies and actions of all stakeholders in the urban development process and to steer them towards the achievement of a collective vision.
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Urbanisation
Spatial process whereby a person permanently migrate from a rural to proclaimed urban area. Refers also to the level of urbanised persons in a particular geographical area.
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White flight

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created: September 1999; last alteration: January 11th 2000 - JL